The biological and mechanical objectives of shaping the root canals were superbly described in the work of Herbert Schilder in 1974. They are as relevant in the age of automated techniques for canal preparation just as they were in the past, when hand preparation methods These goals provide the foundation for the shapes of tapers, tips and sizes of modern endodontic instruments. Forming the root canal helps facilitate 3-D irrigation and the cleaning of your root canal of any pulp tissues bacteria and related products. In addition, creating a shape for the canal gives the form of resistance, which aids in filling up the root canal system.
From hand to manually shaping canals using various sequences of stainless steel files and Gates-Glidden drilling tools methods for preparing the root canal that are both traditional and contemporary are not without flaws and iatrogenic complications such as blockage transport, sloughing, and perforation, are typical. Nitanium-titanium (NiTi) files that are in continuous rotation, driven by an endodontic motor that can handle controlling torque and speed, keeps the original path of the canal and reduces the amount of debris that is apically extruded. While the benefits of constantly turning NiTi files are numerous however, all file systems are affected by the effects of cyclic fatigue and torque particularly in narrower, longer and more curving canals.
Cyclic fatigue, triggered by structural changes and hardening of metals, can be caused by repeated tensile and compressive stress particularly when making canals showing. The failure to rotate due to using excessive force at the apical end occurs more often than flexural fatigue. Particularly, taper lock happens when an excess length of the active part is entangled within the canal during rotation. In the case of a taper lock that is not desirable, it can cause tors failure and even file damage. When the size of the canal is less than the size of the file rotating, it is not able to penetrate deeper into the canal. It it is a bind, which can then be unwinded and/or break.
From reciprocation to rotary
While the majority of commercially available NiTi systems are mechanically driven in continuous rotation, reciprocation–defined as any repetitive up and down or forward and reverse movement–has been used to drive endodontic instruments since 1958. The first attempts to use reciprocation utilized alternate, but equally reverse and forward angles of 90 ° or in recent times small angles of just 30 degrees. This means that the instruments never fully completes a full turn. Even though these systems can be used as the possibility of a manual process, multiple file sequences, apical transport, decreased cutting efficiency, lower upward pressure and limited debris removal still pose problems. But, thanks to a unique reciprocating motion that has unidirectional angles that can complete a full forward 360-degree rotation after 4 90 degree cutting cycles of reciprocation only one file can begin and finish the process of shaping the canal to its perfect form. The singlefile method combined with a unique reciprocating motion has been proven to minimize both torsional and cyclic failure, and prevent breaking instruments.
Since 2008 the idea that”single file technique “single-file procedure” was used by DENTSPLY International in an effort in conjunction with eight international clinical specialists to develop a better secure, dedicated unique, reciprocating single file and to determine the most optimal non-unidirectional angles and motor systems to create this motion. The result was the release the RECIPROC (VDW) in 2009 and RECIPROC (VDW) at the end of 2010 followed by WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer) in the year 2011. Both were advertised as efficient, simple and reliable methods for automated ways to shape canals . Both were was embraced by a lot of general dentists looking to shift to automated canal shaping following several years of unsuccessful efforts using manual techniques . They were valued in terms of cost and time savings.
WaveOne along with RECIPROC files (reciprocating files) de-mons trate significantly improved mechanical properties, superior to files that rotate. Although the cyclic fatigue characteristics for RECIPROC is superior to those of WaveOne however, their resistance to the torsional failing of WaveOne outperforms RECIPROC. In general they are more resilient to breakage than continuously rotating files. They also extrude less debris than traditional multi-file rotary systems, and remove bacteria from root canals as effectively as the rotary systems. The ability to shape reciprocating files is just as good as, and often superior to the rotary files. In addition, it is clear that reciprocating files cannot create dentine cracks.
WaveOne as well as RECIPROC were developed as single-use tools that cannot be used again or sterilized. The ISO color-coded ABS ring that is that is on the handle expands once sterilized, and the files cannot fit inside the handpiece. The single-use principle is based on science and common sense, since the absence of repeated use reduces the chance of fracture due to fatigue and torsional failure. Inability to regularly disinfect and sterilize instruments removes the possibility of cross-contamination. Also, disposal following single-use reduces the expense of cleaning, disinfecting and sterilising, which reduces costs in the long run. But, it must be recognized and appreciated that one reciprocating file can accomplish the same job that typically requires three or more rotating NiTi files to complete. The logic dictates that a single use is the most effective method to reduce the chance of breaking files with all the ethical, emotional and illegal consequences.
With the increasing focus on minimally-invasive endodontics the results of the literature and incorporating the feedback of clinicians who use WaveOne since its debut in 2011has revealed that four of the opinion makers involved in the creation of the file: Drs. Clifford Ruddle (US), Sergio Kuttler (US), Wilhelm Pertot (France) and Julian Webber (UK), collaborated with the team of researchers and developers from DENTSPLY located situated in Ballaigues, Switzerland, to increase the efficiency of cutting and the properties mechanical of the file . The goal was to provide a new level of confidence to the numerous patients who remain skeptical of robotic techniques to form canals.
This is evident in the latest release of WaveOne GOLD which is a brand new generation of reciprocating file that provides security, simplicity and use for making canals.
Advanced metalurgical technology
The WaveOne Gold instruments have been produced using a brand new DENTSPLY proprietary thermal processthat is creating a super-elastic NiTi data. Gold processing is a post-manufacturing method where those surface NiTi files are treated with heat and then slowly cool. From a technical point of view the process alters the temperatures of transformation (austenitic beginning and an austenitic end) and will have an impact on the properties of the instrument. This process also creates the unique gold-colored finish, it also, most important is that it increases its durability and flexibility beyond the previous version. The internal testing conducted by DENTSPLY has revealed that the resistance to fatigue cyclics that is present in WaveOne GOLD Primary is 50 more than WaveOne Primary (which itself was twice as strong as traditional Rotary file systems) as well as the adaptability in WaveOne GOLD Primary is 80 more flexible than WaveOne Primary.
There are four sizes of tips within WaveOne GOLD. There are four sizes of tips in WaveOne Gold single-file reciprocating device The sizes are: Small (20.07 yellow) Primary (25.07 Red) Medium (35.06 green) and Large. These are which are available in 21 and 31 millimeter lengths. The different sizes of tips and tapers give the dentist the possibility of preparing clinically more dimensions and anatomy of the endodontic canal frequently encountered in routine. The canal preparations with a tapered resistance forms are perfect for irrigant exchange and the removal of debris, thereby promoting 3-D disinfection as well as filling the root canal.
WaveOne GOLD is equipped with actively cutting lengths of up to 16 millimetres and a shorter handle of 11 mm for easier posterior access, and the same expandable ISO ABS ring with colour codes as WaveOne which is still based on the concept of one-use. Tapers that are adjustable and reduce in size ensure the most conservatively-shaped canal, with greater preservation of the tooth’s structure D16 the extent of the coronal portion of the procedure. While the ideas that are referred to as “minimally incurable endodontics” do not have a solid and documented basis for studies, any shape or shaping goal that takes less of the tooth’s existing structure while optimizing efficient 3D irrigation and obturation is an important step in the attempt to protect the teeth.
A cross-sectional view of WaveOne GOLD is actually a parallelogram that has two cutting edges that are 85 degrees that are in contact with the wall of the canal and alternating with a patent-pending DENTSPLY off-center cross-section in which just one edge of the cutting is directly in contact with the wall of the canal (Fig. 2). The reduction in the area of contact between the canal wall and the file reduces the binding (taper lock) and, along with an incline of 24 degrees across the entire distance of the tool makes sure that there isn’t any screwing. The extra area around the device allows for more space to facilitate debris removal. The point of the WaveOne GOLD is oval, roundly tapered and semi-active. It has been modified to decrease the weight of the central edge and increase the ability of it to enter any canal that has a proven seamless and repeatable glide of the path.
Together, these features create a reciprocating motion which is extremely smooth, which eliminates the need to force the file, thereby increasing safety and cutting efficiency. This cuts down on shaping time by an additional 19% in the canals contrasted with WaveOne.
WaveOne GOLD files are created with a reverse-cutting helixthat engages and cuts dentine in a clockwise counter (CCW) direction, and then when the device has the chance to lock taper it, releases 30 degrees in the clockwise (CW) direction. The net file’s movement is a cutting process that is 120 degrees. Therefore, after three times the file will have completed 360 reverse degrees.
The X-Smart iQ launched in conjunction with WaveOne Gold is an endodontic motor with a handpiece with a cordless 8:1 design to allow continuous motion and reciprocation. It is Bluetooth controlled by an DENTSPLY Apple iOS IQ application that is downloaded to the iPad mini 2 (Apple). As a full digital device, it’s made to work with all stages of the procedure which includes managing patients, choosing files as well as training in torque control and education for patients. This X-Smart iQ also offers electronic Apex locator capabilities. It is currently accessible DENTSPLY files motors that reciprocate as well as their handpieces, the X-Smart Plus motor (Rest of the World) as well as the ProMark and e3 Torque Control motors Mark and the Torque Control motors e3 (North America) are able to be used indefinitely making use of the full collection of WaveOne GOLD files. All file motors that are reciprocating have been programmed to generate the reverse bidirectional motion, however, the angles of CCW/CW as well as the torque and speed settings are not adjustable. They can, obviously, be used to rotate continuously when the clinician can alter their speed as well as torque depending on the desired settings.
WaveOne GOLD Primary WaveOne GOLD Primary will be the first device to start the shaping process. It creates the perfect shape for about the majority of canals. It is it is a true single-file method and is employed in canals with the benefit of a smooth, confirmed and repeatable glide path. A broader glide path is an ideal configuration for the safe the apical advancement of any endodontic file.
WaveOne GOLD Small file WaveOne GOLD Small File is to be considered bridge files, since the shape that results is too small for to disinfect and fill your root canal. When the Primary file can not advance passively along the path of glide, which has been confirmed to be of the correct length the Small file can be used to move and increase the size of the shape. The Primary file then utilized to extend the shape to the full working length. While a two-file sequence may be an exception, this approach should be considered to be a safer and more efficient choice in comparison to the majority of options for rotary shaping that are available.
Once the Primary file has reached length and the flutes are examined and if they are brimming with debris, it will indicate that shaping has been completed. In the event that the file’s primary is not in good shape at length , and has no debris from the dentinal area on the apical facets, shaping continues using WaveOne GOLD Medium or WaveOne GOLD Large, until all the apical flutes have been loaded. Apical gauging using ISO #25 or 35 hand files and hand files, respectively, can verify that the foramen’s apical size is greater and an Large or Medium file is needed.
The WaveOne GOLD files are employed as a brushing technique to lessen resistance and efficiently instrument canals with irregular cross-sections. Brushing removes coronal interferences which create lateral space and encourages the advancement inward that the files undergo. Additionally, brushing reduces the contact between dentine and the file, which reduces the undesirable taper lock and permits the instrument to move more freely. To prevent transportation avoid brushing at a long distance. These files can be used using an inwardly gentle’stroking motion that is short, with a 2-3mm magnitude, which allows the file to be moved the file on a smooth, repeatable motion.
The shorter shaping time of WaveOne GOLD means that there’s more time to concentrate on active irrigation strategies. To enhance the effectiveness of irrigation efficiency and increase effectiveness, activation using ultrasonic and sonic irrigation is now accepted. The use of dynamic irrigation in the apical one-third canals with a curvature that is high has been proven to dramatically increase the effectiveness of the effectiveness of disinfection.